Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side

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Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics Classification, Uses and Side

Post by Admin on Wed Aug 17, 2016 9:12 am

Bronchitis Asthma Symptoms


The fluoroquinolones are a relatively new group of antibiotics. Fluoroquinolones were first introduced in 1986, but they are really modified quinolones, a class of antibiotics, whose accidental discovery occurred in the early 1960.


First Generation

The first-generation agents include cinoxacin and nalidixic acid, which are the oldest and least often used quinolones. These drugs had poor systemic distribution and limited activity and were used primarily for gram-negative urinary tract infections. Cinoxacin and nalidixic acid require more frequent dosing than the newer quinolones, and they are more susceptible to the development of bacterial resistance. Writing an article on Chronic Bronchitis was our foremost priority while thinking of a topic to write on. This is because Chronic Bronchitis are interesting part 3 of our lives, and are needed by us.

Fluoroquinolones are approved for use only in people older than 18. They can affect the growth of bones, teeth, and cartilage in a child or fetus. The FDA has assigned fluoroquinolones to pregnancy risk category C, indicating that these drugs have the potential to cause teratogenic or embryocidal effects. Giving fluoroquinolones during pregnancy is not recommended unless the benefits justify the potential risks to the fetus. These agents are also excreted in breast milk and should be avoided during breast-feeding if at all possible. The results of one reading this composition is a good understanding on the topic of Chronic Bronchitis. So do go ahead and read this to learn more about Chronic Bronchitis.

All of the fluoroquinolones are effective in treating urinary tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance > 10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance.

Fluoroquinolones Disadvantages:

Tendonitis or tendon rupture Multiple drug interactions Not used in children Newer quinolones produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older agents Remember that it is very important to have a disciplined mode of writing when writing. This is because it is difficult to complete something started if there is no discipline in writing especially when writing on Chronic Bronchitis.

Conditions treated with Fluoroquinolones: indications and uses The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections. The serum elimination half-life of the fluoroquinolones range from 3 -20 hours, allowing for once or twice daily dosing. It is only through sheer determination that we were able to complete this composition on Chronic Bronchitis. Determination, and regular time table for writing helps in writing essays, reports and articles.

Third Generation

The third-generation fluoroquinolones are separated into a third class because of their expanded activity against gram-positive organisms, particularly penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, and atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Although the third-generation agents retain broad gram-negative coverage, they are less active than ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas species. Rolling Eyes

Second-generation agents include ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin is the most potent fluoroquinolone against P. aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are the most widely used second-generation quinolones because of their availability in oral and intravenous formulations and their broad set of FDA-labeled indications. It is only because that we are rather fluent on the subject of Chronic Bronchitis that we have ventured on writing something so influential on Chronic Bronchitis like this! Wink

Classification of Fluoroquinolones

As a group, the fluoroquinolones have excellent in vitro activity against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The newest fluoroquinolones have enhanced activity against gram-positive bacteria with only a minimal decrease in activity against gram-negative bacteria. Their expanded gram-positive activity is especially important because it includes significant activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Because of concern about hepatotoxicity, trovafloxacin therapy should be reserved for life- or limb-threatening infections requiring inpatient treatment (hospital or long-term care facility), and the drug should be taken for no longer than 14 days. We were furnished with so many points to include while writing about Chronic Bronchitis that we were actually lost as to which to use and which to discard!

Urinary tract infections (norfloxacin, lomefloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Lower respiratory tract infections (lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Skin and skin-structure infections (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Urethral and cervical gonococcal infections (norfloxacin, enoxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Prostatitis (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, trovafloxacin) Acute sinusitis (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin (Avelox), trovafloxacin) Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin (Zagam), gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin) Community-acquired pneumonia (levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin)

The fluoroquinolones are a family of synthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents with bactericidal activity. The parent of the group is nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962 by Lescher and colleagues. The first fluoroquinolones were widely used because they were the only orally administered agents available for the treatment of serious infections caused by gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas species.

The newer fluoroquinolones have a wider clinical use and a broader spectrum of antibacterial activity including gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Some of the newer fluoroquinolones have an important role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and intra-abdominal infections.

Gastrointestinal Effects

The most common adverse events experienced with fluoroquinolone administration are gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain), which occur in 1 to 5% of patients. CNS effects. Headache, dizziness, and drowsiness have been reported with all fluoroquinolones. Insomnia was reported in 3-7% of patients with ofloxacin. Severe CNS effects, including seizures, have been reported in patients receiving trovafloxacin. Seizures may develop within 3 to 4 days of therapy but resolve with drug discontinuation. Although seizures are infrequent, fluoroquinolones should be avoided in patients with a history of convulsion, cerebral trauma, or anoxia. No seizures have been reported with levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and gemifloxacin. With the older non-fluorinated quinolones neurotoxic symptoms such as dizziness occurred in about 50% of the patients. Phototoxicity. Exposure to ultraviolet A rays from direct or indirect sunlight should be avoided during treatment and several days (5 days with sparfloxacin) after the use of the drug. The degree of phototoxic potential of fluoroquinolones is as follows: lomefloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin = ofloxacin = levofloxacin = gatifloxacin = moxifloxacin. Musculoskeletal effects. Concern about the development of musculoskeletal effects, evident in animal studies, has led to the contraindication of fluoroquinolones for routine use in children and in women who are pregnant or lactating. Tendon damage (tendinitis and tendon rupture). Although fluoroquinolone-related tendinitis generally resolves within one week of discontinuation of therapy, spontaneous ruptures have been reported as long as nine months after cessation of fluoroquinolone use. Potential risk factors for tendinopathy include age >50 years, male gender, and concomitant use of corticosteroids. Hepatoxicity. Trovafloxacin use has been associated with rare liver damage, which prompted the withdrawal of the oral preparations from the U.S. market. However, the IV preparation is still available for treatment of infections so serious that the benefits outweigh the risks. Cardiovascular effects. The newer quinolones have been found to produce additional toxicities to the heart that were not found with the older compounds. Evidence suggests that sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin may have the most cardiotoxic potential. Hypoglycemia/Hyperglycemia. Recently, rare cases of hypoglycemia have been reported with gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin in patients also receiving oral diabetic medications, primarily sulfonylureas. Although hypoglycemia has been reported with other fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), the effects have been mild. Hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity reactions occur only occasionally during quinolone therapy and are generally mild to moderate in severity, and usually resolve after treatment is stopped. Although there was a lot of fluctuation in the writing styles of we independent writers, we have come up with an end product on Bronchitis worth reading! Laughing

Second Generation

The second-generation fluoroquinolones have increased gram-negative activity, as well as some gram-positive and atypical pathogen coverage. Compared with first-generation quinolones, these drugs have broader clinical applications in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, sexually transmitted diseases, selected pneumonias and skin infections.

Fourth Generation

The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones add significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobes while maintaining the gram-positive and gram-negative activity of the third-generation drugs. They also retain activity against Pseudomonas species comparable to that of ciprofloxacin. The fourth-generation fluoroquinolones include trovafloxacin (Trovan). When a child shows a flicker of understanding when talking about Bronchitis, we feel that the objective of the meaning of Bronchitis being spread, being achieved.

Fluoroquinolones Advantages:

Ease of administration Daily or twice daily dosing Excellent oral absorption Excellent tissue penetration Prolonged half-lives Significant entry into phagocytic cells Efficacy Overall safety We have written a humorous anecdote on Bronchitis contagious to's reading more enjoyable and interesting to you. This way you learn there is a funny side to Bronchitis too! Wink

Because of their expanded antimicrobial spectrum, third-generation fluoroquinolones are useful in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, acute sinusitis and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, which are their primary FDA-labeled indications. The third-generation fluoroquinolones include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin and sparfloxacin. We have to be very flexible when talking to children about Bronchitis. They seem to interpret things in a different way from the way we see things! Embarassed


Osteomyelitis Zyvox Contraindications Zyvox Ocular Toxicity Zyvox and







  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a slow progressing destruction of airways caused by gradual loss of lung function.
  • It's a combination of various lung diseases.
  • In COPD, two lung diseases, namely chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the main diseases.
  • Other diseases like asthmatic bronchitis and bullous disease are also present.
  • This disease is common among the older women in America.
  • On a whole, about 11% of the American population suffers from COPD.
  • According to researches, it kills 85,000 people in the US every year and it is the fourth leading cause of death. Laughing



Smoking is the Primary Cause of COPD

Passive smoking can also lead to COPD. The effects of smoking on the lungs can be severe and permanent. Smoking causes irreversible damage to the lung tissues and causes inflammation of the lungs. This inflammation stops only when the smoking is stopped. The alternative medcine therapy that cures many diseases 4 virtually free add some chemicals to cigarettes for various reasons that block the production of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), which maintain the alaska pacific university the alveoli. This in turn destroys the walls of the lungs, which makes the process of breathing very difficult. Now while reading about Bronchitis, don't you feel that you never knew so much existed about Bronchitis? So much matter you never knew existed. Smile



  • As the disease intensifies, the patients suffering from COPD will find it difficult to breathe.
  • Their difficulty may vary according to the changing weather.
  • They sometimes require hospitalization.
  • Writing about Bronchitis is an interesting writing assignment.
  • There is no end to it, as there is so much to write about it! Very Happy



Other causes that lead to COPD are industrial pollution, occupational dusts, continuous contact with hazardous chemicals, outdoors air pollution, etc. In some cases, parents pass on the genes to their children. In some rare cases, COPD is found in people suffering from a gene-related disorder called alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. Alpha 1 antitrypsin is a protein that inactivates the destructive proteins in the blood. The absence or the low level of alpha 1 antitrypsin in these people leads to the destruction of lungs and ultimately to COPD. Rolling Eyes

Prevention is the Best Medicine for COPD

There is no cure. All the medications for COPD are directed towards reducing the intensity of the disease. So, it is wiser for all of us to take steps to prevent this disease. Keep your mind open to anything when reading about Asthmatic Bronchitis. Opinions may differ, but it is the base of Asthmatic Bronchitis that is important.

America alone, a number of cases of URIs, otitis media, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and acute bronchitis are diagnosed every year. Accordingly, a number of prescriptions are written to cure these disorders. According to studies conducted on the subject, around 70 percent of children and adults receive unnecessary antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis every year. In spite of an abundance of literature recommending the non-use of antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis, clinical studies reveal records of physicians prescribing antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis. Evil or Very Mad

There is a Vast Difference Between Acute Bronchitis and COPD

Antibiotics are often used to treat the latter condition. Using antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis is not recommended because many cases of acute bronchitis are viral. Purulent sputum, a characteristic of viral bronchitis, provides ample proof that the condition is definitely viral in nature and is not bacterial. When the right treatment, support, and care is given, acute bronchitis lasts only for a maximum of seven days. In case of symptoms worsening after seven days, the use of antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis is permitted even though it is still considered non-viral. Just as a book shouldn't be judged by its cover, we wish you read this entire article on Bronchitis Often before actually making a judgement about Bronchitis Often.



  • The use of antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis is not required in all cases.
  • However, some cases, such as the following, have to use antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis:



Cough persists, patients might have to use antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis. Only a fraction of patients suffering from viral bronchitis develop long-lasting cough. Antibiotics can be used even if the use of bronchodilators for 48 hours does not cause any relief. Bacteria causing persistent cough are mycoplasm pneumoniae, chlamydia pneumoniae, and bordetella pertussis. All three are easily destroyed by antibiotics such as macrolide. Azithromycin is usually prescribed because it has fewer side effects than erythromycin. You will have to take a five-day course of azithromycin, which will cost you $38.

Patients with cystic fibrosis are usually infected by staphylococcus aureus, also known as gram negative bacteria, and therefore, require antibiotics. COPD patients often require antibiotic therapy to treat streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae.

An outbreak of viral influenza can complicate the treatment of acute bronchitis. It is during the flue season that adults usually suffer from bacterial complications. If your condition gets worse instead of disappearing after 7-10 days, you will have to use antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis.

Other than these four exceptions, on no other account should antibiotics be prescribed to treat acute bronchitis. The patient has to be educated about using antibiotics to treat acute bronchitis. Often patients do not know anything about antibiotic use. Since medical practitioners have the required expertise in this regard, they should take it upon themselves to educate the public about the right use of antibiotics. Patients should know that antibiotics are not required for all illnesses. Once they know, they will not ask a doctor for antibiotics unless it is absolutely essential.



  • The symptoms of bronchitis is aggravating, the patients must be re-examined to determine if there is any bacterial infection.
  • Usually, acute bronchitis is virus-caused and it disappears after a week.
  • However, if you are getting worse instead of better, you need to consult your doctor at once.
  • We have tried to place the best definition about Bronchitis in this article.
  • This has taken a lot of time, but we only wish that the definition we gave suits your needs. Embarassed



Patients should not expect antibiotic prescriptions whenever they visit a doctor. You medical expenses will be cut down if your treatment plan does not include antibiotics. You can use those savings to purchase vitamins or nutritional supplements that make your body vital enough to withstand bacterial infections that lead to conditions such as acute bronchitis.

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